This abnormality is rare and constitutes a male who has more than two testicles. In a majority of cases, triorchidism, three testicles, is reported with the extra testicle occurring on the left scrotum. The condition is believed to occur when the embryologic crease is cross divided. There are no symptoms and to diagnose it, a man may need testicular biopsies. The most common problem associated with it is testicular torsion.

The majority of reported cases have been managed by carving the supernumerary testicle if a duct does not exist only. Further, follow-ups are conducted to study the effect of the extra testicle on spermatogenesis. Who knows, such individuals could be biologically alpha males as they can produce more male reproductive cells than the rest. I guess only studies could determine whether this abnormality is not as bad as it looks and probably advantageous. I am not sure of that, though.  

Persistent Cloaca

Persistent cloaca refers to a convoluted abnormality among female anorectal deformities. The vagina, urethra and rectum converge together to form one channel. It is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 20,000 live births. The main problems associated with it include bowel and urinary control and sexual activities such as menstruation and intercourse. A reconstructive surgery exists but it’s generally accepted to be very risky, expensive and may not guarantee normal bowel and urinary continence.

As you would imagine, sexual function in women with persistent cloaca anomalies is complicated. First, they have to deal with the psychological aspect of engaging in sex. Physically, these women may require revision of the vagina to facilitate intercourse. Otherwise, intercourse may be an extremely painful and traumatic experience for them.

To be Continued>>

Post Contributed by Ian Njogu

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