Penoscrotal transposition

This exceptional malfunction of the male reproductive organs involves the penis and scrotum switching positions. It is a flaw in the caudal transfer of the inchoate scrotum in the intrauterine life. Among deformities associated with scrotal development, it is generally agreed to be the most severe when the penis and scrotum are totally cephalic to each other. It also symbolises other deformities such as those in skeletal and intestinal systems. It’s not very common as compared to other deformities and for this reason, it is difficult to ascertain its frequency.

The good news is that we have developed corrective surgeries for less severe cases. It includes a three phase surgical procedure over several months. So long as the patient achieves a gratifying penis position and exquisite cosmetic outcome, why not?


This condition occurs when one or both testes in a male do not descend into the scrotum. In normal fetal development, testes develop in the fetus’s belly and descend into the scrotum after birth. In some kids, the testes will descend after birth on their own but in some cases; the testes will remain in the groin area. This condition is common but treatable. It is recommended for kids above six months old due to the fact that studies have shown more success in much older kids.

Normally, careful examination of the groin and femoral region is conducted. Once the health care provider comes into contact with the testes, he/she uses the other hand to gently propel it towards the scrotum. The health care provider will sustain them in this position for not less than 30 seconds. The aim would be to ensure the cremaster muscles are fatigued and hence do not push them back. If after their release, the testes maintain position, then they are retractile testes and no further medical attention may be required. If they retract back to the groin area, then just like a young man who has come of age but decides to move back to his parents’ house instead of making his own life, a different technique may be required to ensure the testes are in their right and natural position. In this case, surgery may be the required option.


Unlike cryptorchidism, Anorchism is the complete absence of testes. During fetal development, testes have to develop within eight weeks for a boy to be born. If they develop but disappear between week 8 and 12, then the fetus develops ambiguous genitalia. On the other hand, if the testes disappear between week 12 and 14, Anorchia is developed. The cause of this condition is yet to be determined. Obviously the major implication is that the Anorchistic individual is infertile.

As bizarre as it may seem, men with anarchism may fail to achieve puberty, develop women-like breast, lack pubic, chest or facial hairs, non-muscular bodies and a voice that sounds like that of a child. Such a person will, therefore, need lifelong androgen supplements. In addition, some men may be traumatised by this reality and hence prosthetic testes may be inserted just to boost their confidence.

Ambiguous Genitalia

An ambiguous genitalia is a deformity at birth where the external genital lacks the emblematic manifestation of either a boy or a girl. Typically, a girl with ambiguous genitalia will have an enlarged clitoris resembling a small penis, fused labia that are analogous to the scrotum or urethra opening occurring anywhere on the clitoris. In boys, a small penis may develop and resemble the clitoris, urethra occurring above, within or below the penis or a scrotum that is comparable to the labia. Its genesis may include an absence of testosterone cellular receptors, chromosomal abnormalities, and hermaphroditism.

Treatment will depend on the ambiguity of the genitalia and in most cases a corrective surgery could be performed to generate or get rid of reproductive organs. In some instances, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is done.

Imperforate Hymen

This condition develops during fetal development and results in the hymen obstructing the vagina opening completely. It can lead to accumulation of menstrual blood during menstruation which may prove problematic. In infants, it may lead to acute retention of urine. The commonality of the condition is difficult to ascertain. Good news though is that a simple surgical incision can be applied to correct it.

As a bonus, aphallia, an exceptionally rare malconformation has been reported. It refers to the absence of either the clitoris or penis. Due to the psychological spin-off associated with it, doctors have to be extremely cautious during prognosis. The majority of cases reported so far have been male. Typically, an aphallia person would need to have his urethra transposed while a girl would need early reconstruction and vaginoplasty. These days, reconstruction surgeries for victims of violence, accidents, fire or breast and butt implants for models is run-of-the-mill. It won’t be a big deal to have a reconstructive surgery.


Post Contributed by Ian Njogu

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